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The Railholiday Nature and Environment Blog

Welcome to our blog - an occasional look at the changing seasons and observations on wildlife spotted in Hayle and St Germans, with a hefty dose of musings on sustainability. This blog includes articles written for our local newsletter under the title of Simple Ways to Save the Planet. I would like these to be open source, so do feel free to use as you wish.

11th November 19 - A first court appearance.

In our enthusiasm to do all we can to help reduce the effect of climate change, we have been taking part in Extinction Rebellion actions in London. In April on Easter Sunday this led to Poppy and I being arrested. Poppy’s charges were dropped just before she was due to go to court, possibly because at 17 she is still a minor. I however was summoned to court and on the charge of obstruction and was given a six month conditional discharge. Here is the speech I gave in my defence.

I would like to start by saying I would never choose to break the law, but I did so in April because I am terrified. I am terrified by the IPCC’s report on the catastrophic effects of global warming. I am terrified my children will be on the frontline of the social breakdown climate change will cause. I am also desperate. Desperate because I have been campaigning on environmental issues since the late '80s when it became clear the ozone layer was thinning. I find it unthinkable, and completely unacceptable, that the actions of successive governments of all colours has been business as usual.

Growing up in the countryside I have seen first hand the damage caused by the industrialisation of land. More recently I have been involved in regenerative farming. I have seen how damage can be reversed, how nature recovers when balance is restored. And it is due to this I have hope. However the hope is growing thinner.

We have ten acres of woodlands. In the last few years our larch has been threatened by phytophthora, ash dieback is prevalent and micro moths are attacking our horse chestnuts. The climate that yo-yos from drought to heavy rain is placing our trees under stress. Much is made of tree planting schemes, but it takes over a hundred years to establish the biodiversity of an ancient woodland. And what if it doesn’t work?

In the 90’s my parents planted a thirty acre orchard. Normally at harvest time we are plagued by wasps, but this year they were disconcertingly absent. On the 1st August the New Scientist published a study that shows wasps have been shrinking in response to climate change, and proportionately their wings have shrunk fastest of all, leading to problems with flight. What if other insects are responding in a similar way? We know that if our pollinators die, then humans will follow less than four years later.

We run a collection point for refugee aid, which is sent to Calais and Greece. Originally we sent containers directly to Syria, but there is no longer a safe passage there. When the charity was established a few years ago it was an emergency response to a crisis. It is now an ongoing project with no end in sight. I believe this just the tip of the iceberg. When rising sea levels submerge islands, with the subsequent loss of homes and farming land, we are likely to experience mass migration and anarchy on a previously unseen level, that will require far than a community collection of nappies and tinned food.

But I despair that none of this is taken seriously at a governmental level.

In Cornwall we've recently seen a huge growth in development. We once had legislation that made it a legal requirement to make all new housing carbon neutral. This legislation was removed and planning regulations on greenfield sites were relaxed in 2015 in a document titled ‘Fixing the foundations - making a more prosperous society.’ This document was designed to increase the coffers of large building firms, despite going directly against the government's promise to reduce carbon. And this is the crux of the problem. All the time we are living within a system that measures success in terms of economic growth we are doomed.

For many years I have been involved in promoting rail travel. I run a sustainable tourism business and am chair of our local Rail Users group. But I despair as our local tourism industry rushes to market Cornwall to America and beyond, while our own populace flies to cheap foreign destinations that are being ruined by over-tourism. Why is it socially acceptable to ignore the carbon cost of flying? Why does no one have the courage to tax aviation fuel, so more sustainable travel options such as travelling by rail, or holidaying more locally, can compete?

To summarise, I took part in public disruption in April because I believe we need action now and we need it to be decisive and strong. We need to stop thinking of economic growth and start building ecological growth. To do that we need government help to construct self sufficient local societies. We need a system change that celebrates what we have at our doorstep. We need to change, even though change is painful, because we need our children and grandchildren to be able to live.

I plead guilty to being a part of the system that is causing untold damage to our environment. I need help. We all do. I also plead guilty to sitting in the road at Waterloo Bridge. It was an act of desperation where all else had failed. I know I will have a punishment and request to do local community service, rather than endorsing our economic system by paying a monetary fine.

30th October 19 - Halloween

I like Halloween but I really dislike the way it has become an excuse for selling more disposable tat & individually wrapped plastic wrapped sweets. So for what it’s worth here’s some suggestions...

For treats little apple are good. I make the following bakes which are easy and tasty: simple buns - mix 500g self raising flour, about 200g sugar, 400ml oil, 200ml milk, a teaspoon of vinegar (cider or white wine). Stir. Add to this mix whatever you fancy; chocolate chips, vanilla essence, mixed spice, raisins, lemon rind, marmalade etc. (But not all together!). Spoon into a bun cases (I use the reusable silicone ones, saves having a paper wrapper to dispose of) & cook on a medium heat (about 180) for about 20 minutes & decorate.

Cheese fingers;
Rub in a large knob (about 1-2 oz) local butter into 8oz self raising flour. Add a pinch of salt & mustard (optional) and a big handful or two of grated cheese. Add a beaten egg & enough milk to make a soft dough. Roll out about an inch thick, cut into finger shaped strips, shape so the end is tapered & add a pecan or almond finger nail & some lines on the joints. Bake for about 10-12 mins at about 180C. Serve with a ketchup dip.

15th October 19 - Simple Ways to save the planet.

As the evenings are drawing in, it seems the perfect time to do creative indoor things. It also is a time of contemplation. I used to slightly dread the Christmas season; so much waste and expense seems to be generated in the desire to be generous and have a perfect time. I've now realised there is a positive way of approaching the gifting season, that is fun and creative. We now put a limit on spend and either make presents or buy almost exclusively second hand. This might seem a tall order, which is why this article comes in the October issue, as now is the time to start looking in charity shops. We gave and received some fabulous gifts; homemade truffles in cut glass dishes, handmade cushions, and a particular favourite - the somewhat cut throat game of Exploding Kittens. (Now that was a fine charity shop find!).

Another favourite gift has been seeds. Simply put your dried seed heads in a paper bag and let the seeds work their way out. Honesty, Sweet William, wallflowers and poppies are all good for pollinators and easy to grow from seed. It's also time to plant yellow rattle seed in grassy patches to create a wildflower meadow next year. Yellow rattle weakens the grasses to allow native wildflower species to flourish.

This time of mellowness is also the best for eating local. The apple harvest is excellent this year, and marrows and squashes all grow well in this country. A good use of marrow is to stuff it with vegetables and couscous, flavoured with herbs and a stock cube, then bake it in a moderate oven. Delicious.

20th September 19 - A family holiday.

We took a much needed break in August, and had a thoroughly good time travelling around Europe by train. We even managed to find a train carriage to twin with in Amsterdam! Our journey started in St Germans, then GWR train to London, Eurostar to Amsterdam, where we were delighted to find ourselves in the centre of the Pride weekend celebrations.

We arrived in Amsterdam by accident. I’d seen a special deal for cheap Eurostar tickets while on a silent film symposium break in London. We had been planning to go to Croatia, so I thought great, I’ll buy those tickets now, failing to refer to a map.

Given that my geography is pretty poor I should have known Amsterdam really is not on the way to Croatia!

In the end it all worked out really well though as a heatwave settled on Europe, so we decided Croatia might be too hot. So instead we went, via a night in Bern, to the eye wateringly expensive town of Zermatt in Switzerland, where we took the extraordinary Gornergrat cog railway to the top of the mountain and swam in glacial melt water pools.

We followed this with a cultural stop in Venice to visit the Art Bienalle, before catching the very good value Thello sleeper train back to Paris. For anyone planning a similar trip, do feel free to call and ask me questions. We bought our tickets in advance from The Train Line and Eurostar, with some expert advice on planning from The Man in Seat 61.

20th July 19 - Community fun.

We had a great time making bags with the community at our local cafe/ restaurant/ wine bar Scholars, and there is the photographic proof! Lunch was delicious too.

We were very grateful to have the expertise of Kim, with her magical interlocking machine. I have to say I knew I was up for a tall order when I organised this event, being naturally hopeless at needlework. But I wanted to show that if I could make a bag, then anyone could. Poppy was also on hand to help, and made a show bag that we used for making our templates. Years of ammassing material, plus some donated on the day, meant we could make a variety of jolly designs. It was great to have a mix of all ages. We all agreed we would like to do it again sometime in the future. Despite the clattering of three machines, there was still plenty of banter!

10th June 19 - Reducing air miles, for leisure, business and food.

The holiday season is upon us, and aren't we lucky to live in Cornwall! For me many of my happiest memories are spending time camping, swimming, barbecuing, cycling and walking with family and friends within a fifty mile radius of home. But there's the weather; it's unpredictable, and not always hot. And experiencing new places is often life enhancing. So how can we do this with minimum impact? The most effective way to be eco friendly is to eschew flying and choose destinations that can be accessed by train or boat.

You may wonder why flying is so damaging. The science is complex, but the problem is that fuel expended in the air is over twice as potent in its warming effect as that on the ground.

Unfortunately price comes into it; there is no tax on aviation fuel, which means flights can be cheaper than trains and buses. If the government is serious about climate change this is something that does need to be tackled.

If you prioritise your spending on more sustainable travel, then you will find the journey becomes a big part of the holiday. And it needn't be a headache. An excellent site to visit is The Man in Seat 61. Here you will find everything you need to plan train travel in Europe and beyond. You can also buy bus and train tickets from Loco2. And if you enjoy a cruise, Brittany ferries run from Plymouth to both Spain and France, and offer package holiday deals if you would like everything organised. Buses are often a good way to get by when abroad, especially in further flung places where train travel can be slow.

If you do really need to fly, try to make your stay a worthwhile length. Jetting to Barcelona for the day or Prague for a weekend should not be considered acceptable in any society that values its long term survival. Low cost airlines are usually greener than more expensive ones, as each flight carries more passengers for the space.

Another culprit in the equation is air freighted foods. Food tastes so much better when it's local and in season. Ship freighted foods such as bananas have far lower carbon footprints than soft fruits and perishables that are flown over. Think before you buy; not only will it help save the planet, you may well save money too.

26th May 19<>
Railholiday declare a climate emergency

After encouraging our councils to declare a climate emergency, it seems logical to do so ourselves are a business. This declaration will commit us to carefully consider all we do, and how this relates to our imprint on the environment. Over the next months and years every purchase we make will be evaluated for its impact, and our staff will continued to be encouraged to be involved with community projects and other earth positive actions. One of my first pledges has been to spread the word by writing for the parish magazine, which will be republished on this page. Thank you to Matt of Leap for the logo.

12th May 19 - Differentiating between Need and Want

While in London a few weeks ago I saw a placard that read “What’s the point of having everything we want, when we don’t have what we need, like the air that we breathe.” This gave me food for thought; our biggest problem is that we are currently consuming more than our earth can provide and the lines between what we need and what we want have become blurred.

So what can we do?

The first point to consider is that almost everything we spend money on will have a carbon footprint. So reduce is the key message here; ask before you buy, do I need this, or do I just want it? And if the later is the case, what is the environmental impact?

Can you get what you want second hand? Never has it been easier to acquire used items; try Freecycle or Freegle. Both of these sites offer unwanted items for free. Alternatively Ebay and Gum Tree are just two places that offer second hand items for sale. On the high street there are many charity shops specialising in clothes, books, furniture and other household items.

Can you repair what you have? Remember any new item has a carbon cost in its production, so continuing to use something inefficient is usually greener than buying new. Repair cafes are becoming popular; a community day of people exchanging trades. The most successful I know of is in Falmouth on the first Sunday of the month. Perhaps this is something we could aspire to in our own community?

If you must buy new, can the item you need be made or sourced locally? Always buy the best quality you can afford, for longevity.

When it comes to waste, if the council cannot recycle something, you may be able to find someone who can through Terracycle.com.

Did you know the council will recycle clothes too worn to donate to charity shops? Simply place your rag in a tied bag in the black bottle box.

We've moved to reusable bags for our shopping. However new cotton bags have a surprisingly high carbon footprint. So I'll be running a bag making workshop for all on Thursday 11th July at Scholars from 11am until late afternoon. I've got lots of material, but do feel free to bring your own if you want to. Free of charge and all welcome.

Top tip – feeling cold? Don't turn up the heater. Put on a jumper!

10th April 19

On April the 8th I pledged to go single use plastic free for the day. It was surprisingly challenging! Here's how I fared.

At breakfast time I opted for porridge, with turmeric, honey and ginger. I would normally have raisins too, but these come in plastic. My usual tea was out of bounds as the box we buy has a cellophane wrapping, but I did have some Rooibosh. I had to hope there was no plastic in the teabag itself. I couldn't have oat milk so drank it black. However I was able to have ordinary milk from our milkman on my porridge. Although in a glass bottle Dad's homemade apple juice has a plastic top, so I had to boycott that. It did however make me think I should look into alternatives for Dad for the coming season.

I cleaned Millpool. We use cleaning products bought in bulk, many of which need to be watered down. The containers are refilled. However the 5 litre concentrate and soap containers are plastic, which generally are not reused, although they do get recycled. The flowers we use are cut fresh from the garden, so plastic is never a problem with these.

The pledge was a good excuse not to have any chocolate biscuits at crib time. Lunch was a little tricky, but I did have some home-made houmous, some salad left over from a friend's party at the weekend, and boiled eggs, as well as a cake bought from a stall at Hayle on Saturday that was wrapped in tin foil. I did wonder how far I should take it. Could I have humous when the bottle of lemon juice I used has a plastic top, as does the lid of the Tahini paste? Should I boycott brushing my teeth? (I decided against this).

A friend had given me some delicious flapjacks made with bananas on Sunday, so I snacked on these liberally through the day.

After lunch I was inspired to finally contact Keveral Farm to order a regular large box of vegetables.

I had my evening meal sorted in my head; yesterday's nut roast was made of items in jars (tahini, peanut butter), items bought loose in bulk (walnuts) bread in a reusable bag and unwrapped sweet potatoes. I would have an accompaniment of homemade quince and chilli chutney and leftover party spinach. However matters were taken out of my hands when I got in after walking Django (Dad's dog who is on sleepover) as Poppy had made tea. I had a choice; say yes to the deliciously steamy pot of vegan mince and pasta, both of which had come from single use plastic packets, or make my own meal. Okay. I failed. We finished with Sunday's homemade gooseberry crumble, which would have been plastic free had I used butter rather than sunflower oil.

My failed attempt to go single use plastic free was a useful experiment, and it certainly has left me pondering over ways I could reduce what we use. And I'm looking forward to enjoying a weekly box of organic vegetables in the future.

5th April 19

It's been really wonderful to see our parish councils leading the way in declaring a climate emergency. Collectively their declarations will mean a greener, cleaner future for all of us.

And there are many ways we can support our councils. One of the most important things for wildlife is to have corridors; places where they can move freely from one haven to the next. This means long grass, pollinator friendly plants, a mix of trees, shrubs and bushes, water and food all year round. Can you make your garden a wildlife haven?

Importantly this also means using no sprays. Nature has a great way of balancing itself, given time. Ladybirds will eat aphids, birds will tackle snails, frogs will eat slugs. Areas of long grass will provide cover for small mammals, and in turn attract owls. A small hole in your garden fence will give hedgehogs the ability to extend their territory and a log pile will provide them with shelter.

Now that our parishes have declared a climate emergency, we can look forward to longer grass verges, and all the additional interesting wildlife that comes with it; moths, butterflies, dragonflies, hoverflies, frog hoppers. Take a magnifying glass and sit for a while, you'll be amazed at what you see.

The living graveyards project is a fine example of what happens when nature is left to its own devices. I was at Hessenford churchyard last spring and felt overcome with how beautiful it was; filled with primroses, campions, bluebells and many other wild flowers.

So let's embrace the wild, take time to enjoy slow things, of which we are enormously blessed in this area; the sea, streams, rivers, beaches, and all the many life forms with which we are lucky enough to share our planet with.

On a tangent (and I make no apologies for repetition on this one), there is little better way of saving the planet than staying local. The less money spent, the less miles travelled, the smaller our carbon footprint becomes. Spending money within your community will keep it vibrant; slower forms of travel, such as walking and cycling, have the added bonus of lots of social interaction along the way.

And a big thank you to Deviock and St Germans councils for all the great work they do.

26th February 19

Last month I extolled the joys of planting trees, and it is still the season. Trees can be planted until their leaves start to come out in early April. Plant a little late and they may need slightly more nurturing in terms of water.

This month my focus is on local. Buying local is one of the easiest and most effective ways to reduce your carbon footprint.

One of the biggest problems is that we live in a system where success is measured by economic growth, and it's almost impossible to spend money without impacting on the environment . However we as consumers do have power to drive change. By buying local you can support local farmers, encourage food production that is beneficial and give a better quality of employment. By using local labour you are likely to have a network of tradespeople to call when you have a crisis.

We are very lucky in our parish to have a number of shops. This was especially handy when the snow came a few weeks ago. However in order to stay viable, they do need to be supported.

Although the bottom line price may seem cheaper, supermarkets are cleverly designed to assist us to part with our money. You may only intend to buy a pint of milk, but suddenly you find ten other things in the basket. A supermarket will employ one hour of staff time for every £200 spent. For a local shop it is £40. It is easy not to count the cost of time and fuel in getting to a supermarket.

Shopping locally is social. You will meet people, and people will be glad to see you. You can start to have a say in what is stocked, and if some exotic ingredient is required, then usually it can be sourced as a special order.

There's also the opportunity to volunteer in St Germans and Crafthole. We take it in turns to volunteer in St Germans shop on Sunday and it's great fun to play shopkeeper, which can involve giving tips on local practicalities, or the best recipe for soups and cakes, as well as catching up with friends old and new.

Tips for plastic free shopping: Take your own tupperware containers for meat and fish, net bags for vegetables and fruit. Choose unwrapped vegetables or order a weekly organic veg box from Keveral. Keep foldaway bags in your handbag and car, buy a reusable water bottle and a reusable mug for hot drinks. Have a litter bag to hand when you go to the beach or for a walk in the country. If you're on Twitter use the hash tag #TwoMinuteBeachClean.

Finally don't forget: switch to 100% renewable energy if you haven't already done so. Good Energy and Octopus Energy are worth a look.

27th January 19

Cornwall County Council declaration

I had the priviledge on Tuesday of being there when Cornwall Council declared a Climate Emergency Declaration. It was inspirational to see councillors of all colours working together on something they all felt passionate about; our environment. But it is Cornwall, so I guess it seems logical to lead the way, as our natural beauty is something we are very proud of. We have decided as Railholiday to also declare a climate emergency, as we feel it will help us focus our efforts on continually looking at ways in which we can improve our carbon footprint - and that can only be a good thing. One of our pledges has been to write a regular article in our parish newsletter with simple ideas that can be carried out at home. My first article is on the 16th December blog. My second is below.

16th January 19
Green Tips for January

In last month's Green Tips I commented about Climate Change. Here are a few more suggestions for things you can do to help.

Tree and hedge planting. One of the most important protectors of the planet are trees. Not only do they absorb carbon from the atmosphere, but in heavy floods they also help reduce soil erosion. The UK has only 8% of tree cover, compared to 35% in mainland Europe.

Tree planting can be done any time until early April. Easy to grow and of good wildlife value are oaks, limes, willow, birch, cherry, apples, rowan and beech. Of course we don't all have space to plant trees, so a good alternative is to have others plant them for you. Becoming a member of the Cornwall Wildlife Trust or Woodland Trust will support the work they do.

Equally valuable to tree planting and something most of us can do, is to replace fences with wildlife hedges. These can make a most attractive garden border. Plant a wildlife mix of blackthorn, hawthorn, guelder rose, hazel, field maple, crab apple, wild cherry and dog rose and in years to come you can enjoy birds feasting on the fruits of your labours.

Want to green your web use? Switch to the search engine Ecosia. It works really well and uses its profits to plant trees. 46 million so far!

Finally some low carbon food tips from Mike Berners-Lee's excellent book How Bad Are Bananas?
“Eat what you buy. Ask people how much they'd like before you serve them. Eat the skins, clean the plates, pick the carcass, save the leftovers. Check what needs eating when you plan your menus. Keep vegetables in the fridge if you can. Rotate the contents of your cupboards so the old stuff is at the front. Eradicating waste is worth a 25% carbon saving for the average shopper.”

For further reading, visit Sustainable Food Trust

7th January 19
The snowdrops are coming out! We are very excited to see them, and this year they promise to be even more exciting as our new varieties become established. And we have beautiful handmade signs to accompany them, made by Dave.

We've named the Cuttivett snowdrops Penelope, in memory of our loving but rather scatty cat.

We also have other varieties of native snowdrops, that are all subtly different, that come from different places. Most of them are named after the friends that have donated them, or memories of people we have associated with those places. Hence we have Heathcote (Penimble), Jago and Peregrine (Port Eliot), Emma West the elder (Higherland), the Ceramacist (Luckett) Molly Shannon (Broadmoor Farm) and Great Uncle John (Leominster).

Other named varieties of single snowdrops include Captain James Blackhouse, Sam Arnott and the galanthus elwesii Cedric’s Prolific.

Among the more unusual snowdrops is Frankie Lister, named after my mother, a tall, green tipped snowdrop. Then there are a few flora plena double snowdrops; a particularly short variety we’ve called Jean and Henry, from Coldrenick, near Menheniot, and one named after my grandmother Molly Shannon, that comes from Broadmoor Farm. Other traditional nivalis snowdrops include Lily Lanyon from Trerulefoot, Lilyman’s Pound, and Dave and Pat, from Pound Farm, Yelverton. Other doubles are the Greatorex varieties Ophelia, Cordelia, Hippolyta and Desdemona. Lastly are Merlin and Trym, which may or may not come up this year, as last year they seemed to have been eated by something during the snowy period.

There are also a couple of parties going on in the woods. In two places several varieties dance together. Most notable is the Boogie Round, which is for snowdrops who late in the season finally poke their heads above the ivy. I don't expect to see much until mid February in this area, but am hoping this year there will be a good show. I have not yet bought any snowdrops to add to the collection this year, but high on my list is Magnet, Galatea, Washfield Warham and Lady Beatrice Stanley.

For us snowdrop season starts now and continues until early March. Do come and see for yourself. We are offering short breaks from two days, and last year these were very popular in the peak snowdrop season. And if you would like to bring a new variety to add to the mix, we would be delighted, and very happy to do a swap.

16th December 18
This month has seen my taking on a regular commitment to writing a green blog for our parish council newsletter, which I will also be replicating on this page, thus killing two birds with one stone, if you’ll pardon the rather gruesome proverb. Below are the key points from my first article, with a big thanks to Manda Brookman of Cafe Disruptif, as it has very heavily borrowed from one of Manda’s excellent leaflets.

Climate Emergency

Green Tips for December 2018

Many of you may have read the latest news about climate change, and it makes depressing reading. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in the last few weeks that "Limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees centigrade will require rapid, far reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society."

Reading this may give a feeling of hopelessness, but together we can make a positive difference. We can make our own changes, talk to others and make a big noise at big companies, our politicians and the businesses we use. Let's lead the way! Here are five actions to begin.

1. Switch to renewable energy providers and green your commute - walk or cycle if you can, use public transport or car share if you can't. We are lucky to have train stations in St Germans and Hayle, and buses through both parishes.There are timetables in each of the carriages.

2. Buy local food and buy more local vegetables - especially if they're grown in a good way, without chemicals (all of which use fossil fuels). Support your local small shops and not only are you doing your bit, but also keeping your money in the local economy.

3. Don't throw any food away! We waste so much - give yourself the challenge to waste nothing.

4. Get informed: start with the Friends of the Earth climate change Page

5. Join the many who are already writing to MPs in Cornwall - and they're replying! And join the Climate Vision Pledge Group: climatevision.co.uk/top-ten-pledges.

Then join the bigger movement! See if you can join a local Extinction Rebellion group, which is a rapidly growing activism group fighting for climate change reversal. Check out their website for more information.

4th December 18
This year has been a year of deep thought, as increasingly signs look like we are failing to reach targets that would protect our wildlife in the future. This concern led to my dressing as a hornet and taking part in Chris Packham’s People Walk for Wildlife in London on the 22nd September.

It has also sparked concern among others, with some groups forming to take action to try and bring the problem to wider notice. Extinction Rebellion is at the forefront.

The biggest problem is that the environment tends to get buried in short term problems, and we now do really need to sit up and act. So what can we do? A good place to start is to look at the site Project Drawdown, which has some useful suggestions and places different problems in perspective. Important things to do for the environment is worth a read.

For those of use who have failed in the first issue by having children, it seems all the more important we prioritise the other stages, for their future. And how to stay boyant through it all? Do read this excellent article Eco Anxiety and how to manage it.

25th October 18
The community orchard has survived remarkably well despite the drought, and produced a few apples. And it has been a bumper year for apples! One of my biggest jobs this autumn is to help my father press apples for his juice business Kerensa Aval, which means loving apple in Cornish.

Railholiday open day 2018 from Railholiday on Vimeo.

8th April 18
Since writing my last blog. We have had a successful open day, which saw the sharing of pollinator friendly plants, and earlier this year planted a community orchard. We had a lovely time in March when we opened our doors to celebrate the completion of Millpool.

Oxana of Snakistan, Penzance, did a fabulous cooking workshop on the food of the great silk road, Dad brought along apple juice, we had a plant swap stand, history exhibition and Hessenford WI very kindly served homemade cakes, pasties and drinks.

The day was filmed by Plymouth College of Art student Bernard, and can be seen on our Vimeo page; simply search for Railholiday. A big thanks to all those who helped and all who came.

30th January 2018
To me the best thing about planting is that each year gets better and better. This is certainly true of our snowdrops, which are becoming very well established in the woods now.

Some of the snowdrops arrived voluntarily; these common snowdrops (galanthus nivalis) I discovered by chance two years ago while clearing a derelict old track of brambles. This was the inspiration for creating a snowdrop trail.

Since then I have been delighted to have acquired more in a variety of manners; mostly from friend’s gardens (nivalis and flora plena varieties), but I also purchased four species snowdrops from Beth Chatto Gardens last year. I am pleased to say that these snowdrops (Ophelia, Cedric’s Prolific, Dionysus and Captain James Blackhouse) are all doing well. I intend to add to the varieties in March, when the flowering season is over, as this is the best time to plant snowdrops.

In the meantime Dave has made a lovely arch and begun some steps down to the new snowdrop walk. It has been a learning process for me too. I have discovered I will need to strim and clear before the snowdrops start to appear for best effect! So November this year will be busy - the perfect excuse not to spend the winter office bound.

1st November 2017
Throughout the year I have been mulling over all kinds of entry to this blog, but one way or another they have not made it onto the page. The reasons have been many; supporting Walter through A levels and getting another carriage up and running have been part of this, but also this year the rug was pulled from our feet when my much loved, super fit and always inspirational Mum suddenly became ill and died.

Mum, Frankie Lister, was a force to be reckoned with. Despite starting life with no background in farming, as a farmer’s wife she threw herself into learning with gusto. Always accompanied by a plethora of animals; chickens, geese, dogs, cats and various unridable quadrapeds (not to mention five small children), Mum also kept bees and grew vegetables and fruit.

In 1990 she stepped down from her job as secondary school maths teacher and became a wildlife conservation advisor, firstly for FWAG, then later independently. In the mid 1990’s she and my father, Tony, bought about 30 acres of land at Cuttivett, near Landrake, where they planted an orchard of Cornish varieties of apple trees, bred Dexter cattle, created a network of wildlife ponds, and also established a plantation of walnut and cobnut trees, with everything managed for optimum wildlife benefit. They got a grant and bought bottling and pressing equipment from Vigo and set up an apple juice business called Karensa Aval (Cornish for loving apple), going on to make cider, cider vinegar and pickled walnuts as well as their organically grown Cornish apple juice.

Throughout our journey Mum has been there offering advice and support.

I think there can be few better ways of honouring a really special life than by continuing the lessons we have been taught: yesterday I planted over 600 crocus and hyacinth bulbs at Cuttivett so the bees Mum loved so much will have early nectar. When I stopped for a break I sat by the largest pond watching two types of dragonflies and a hornet and understood; Mum and Dad will always live on in the landscape they have created.

I don’t think anything ever prepares you for the loss of a loved one, but keeping Mum’s passion for all things living seems a positive way of moving forward. I guess it’s my time to pick up the gauntlet.

30th January 2017 - A talk for the Cornwall Wildlife Trust.
I was lucky last week to be invited to talk at the Cornwall Wildlife Trust’s Wild Business Event. I discussed the merits of environmental growth and how it can help a business to be successful. So I thought I would share my tips below...

1. Work out what you can do simply and easily with what you already have. Environmental growth needn't be expensive. Ask friends for plants, establish a relationship with your local nursery, who will be able to advise on what to plant where, thus saving money in the long run.

2. Use your environmental growth as a tool of communication on social media platforms; show pictures of insects, birds, flowers. These are always popular.

3. Find others in your local area who also are interested in environmental growth and work collaboratively.

4. Shout about what you're doing. Write newsletters, run a blog, talk to clients. Think communication and be proud.

5. Don't be scared to steal other people's ideas and adjust them to suit your own situation, but everyone likes an acknowledgement and always offer thanks where due.

6. Use your own images! It is easy to get carried away and find images on the internet to suit your purpose, but it is easy, as we discovered, to find yourself on the wrong side of copyright laws. Make sure you have permission for any images you use.

7. Think about which areas you need to improve in your business. Do you want year round tourism or are you shut during winter? Where can you add environmental gain that will give greatest benefit to your visitors or staff? Can you use the by product of environmental growth (eg flowers) as an added value to what you offer?

8. Be ambitious. Sometimes a risk can pay off. But always work within your financial restraints.

9. Join wildlife trust groups and other environmentally responsible organisations who will be able to give guidance. Follow them on Twitter and other social media platforms so you keep on top of the latest environmental thinking.

December 1st 2016 - A painted panel that’s all about pollinators.

With the winter coming up, I’ve been packing seeds to send as Christmas presents. Another job that needed doing was a painted panel for the toilet in Harvey, so as a way of saving time, I combined the two to make a wildlife painting, all about bees. It was such good fun making it, I thought I would share it below. All the flowers on the panel are pollinator friendly. There is plenty of writing, so I have included quite a large picture here, but if you would like to see it in greater detail, simply click on the image.

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October 28th 2016 - Feed the birds.

There are few things I love more than kicking through big piles of leaves, and in the last few years these leaves have felt like a real gift.

In Cornwall we have acidic soil that camellias and other ericaceous plants love. They also need feeding and mulching, and this is something that well rotted leaf mould is great for. It can be spread over beds to enrich soil and adds health to the garden. There are some places where it is appropriate simply to rake the leaves over the beds and leave nature to get on with it, but mostly we collect the leaves.

It is very easy to make a leaf mould container; just wrap some chicken wire around four poles to make a large open bin and let weather and time do the rest. Ideally then the leaves should be left for a year (or better still two) before being used. For this reason I have several bins tucked away in corners of the garden where they can be forgotten.

While spreading the leaf mould and seeing the birds go mad over the invertibrates and worms that inevitably make their home among the leaves, it made me think; how do we feed the birds when we are not around to put out seed and fatballs? This is something that has occupied me for a while, so we have put in wildlife hedges around our sites.

Few trees to me seem better than the humble hawthorn; beautiful in spring and bees love it, then an abundance of tasty haws in the autumn. They are happy to grow anywhere too. This is one self seeding shrub that we welcome into our gardens with open arms.

August 25th 2016 - Wildflower meadows.

This year, as a continued plan for environmental growth, we’ve created a meadow outside Mevy, which has, for the most part, been rather successful. The long grass attracted lots of butterflies and we were delighted with the number of plant species that were inherently in the lawn. Lots of clover and plantain, a little ladies smock and other flowering plants.

Disappointingly the yellow rattle I planted in autumn had failed to germinate, and the dog daisies haven't yet got established, but I am confident next year will see the diversity increase. I've collected seeds from hedgerows, which I will be scattering over the next few weeks; so would very much hope next year we will have scabious, knap weed, vetch and more.We cut the grass last week, but are going to continue to allow the back of the plot to be long, as shelter for small mammals, while the front will be kept shorter for the spring crocus bulbs to flourish.

Our meadow has a very different look from that of a friends, with whom I planned a meadow on a grander scale in the corner of a stony field. This was firstly ploughed and then planted with a meadow seed mix, including various chamomiles and cornflowers. A few wild poppies have sneaked their way in, but essentially at the moment it is a fairly white, yellow and blue mix. I think you will agree from the photographic evidence from last week that it looks splendid, even in this first year. Looking forward to seeing how it develops...

June 2nd 2016 - Learning from others about planting for wildlife.

Last year I went to one of the most inspiring places I have ever visited for wildlife. Lethytep, near Lanreath, is 52 acres of vast wildflower meadows, ponds, woodlands, all designed to give the greatest benefit to wildlife. Lethytep is opening in aid of the Cornwall Wildlife Trust on the 26th June and I would highly recommend a visit if you can.

The hedgerows are peaking with cow parsley, campions, buttercups, bluebells, stitchwort, honeysuckle and vetch all vying for attention. I like to get out on my bike at this time of year, as it is a great way to appreciate the beauty of the area.

Looking closely into the hedges also leads to surprises; wild orchids and even ocassionally some rare Bastard Balm. Traditionally Bastard Balm was used as a diuretic, blood purifier, astringent, for wound healing, and as a sedative. It also has anti spasmodic properties, but is such a rare treat it should always be left undisturbed and unpicked.

The advantage of seeing hedges from a bicycle is that it is then easy to spot when plants are running to seed. This year I shall be collecting native bluebell seeds to broadcast around the woods (these will come from the bluebell glade at the end of the woods, thus ensuring I have the most natural varient of bluebells). I've also noted where there are large numbers of orchids, which I'll scatter into our patch of meadow in front of Mevy. Orchids should always be undisturbed, and I shall be careful to only take a few seeds from each plant, to ensure lineage continues.

Finally it is Chelsea Chop time; when autumn flowering plants like sedums are pruned to encourage later flowering and bushy plants. I have stuck all my sedum cuttings into soil, after taking the lower leaves off first, so in theory may well have in excess of fifty new plants to give away later in the year. Let me know if you would like one! I've left the tops on some and pinched out the growing tips of others, so will be interested to see which do best.

May 10th 2016 - A flower for every day of the year

What a lot of time has elapsed since writing. This is not because I have been idle, but have been spending time creating another wildlife facility on Pinterest. Last year I decided it would be a good idea to profile a different plant in flower for each day of the year and chose to host this on our Pinterest page, where it can be shared easily. You can see my journal for the first three months here. At this time of the year the job becomes much easier and I'm faced with a choice of new flowers, as more and more open each day as we head to peak flower time in June.

Another joy of this time of year is nettle tops, sorrell and wild garlic. These make a great soup when combined with potatoes, salt, pepper and a stock cube if you want it. Alternatively nettles and garlic are a good accompaniment to feta cheese and pine nuts when wrapped in pastry and sprinkled with a little nutmeg.

The hedges are filled with edible delights at this time of year, and some of course that are not so edible; Dog's Mercury, Cuckoo Pint (Lords and Ladies, Jack’s in the Green), Foxgloves etc are poisonous, but the latter two hold a dear place in my childhood memories; writing on the back of our hands with the stamen, and wearing foxgloved fingers. Hence the strict requirement to always wash our hands before eating!

Thanks to Reddish Vale Country Park for the following information about Cuckoo Pint; "The Cuckoo Pint has an interesting way of being pollinated, flies can go into a hidden chamber in the flower, but an arrangement of hairs prevents them from flying out again. However this is not meant to be a death trap, but a simple way to ensure that the insects stay for the night to pollinate the flowers. The next day the stamens will mature and shed pollen on the flies. This process results in the withering of the hairs and the insects are free once more to fly off to find another similar hotel room for the night. Later on in the year, all that remains of the plant is the fruiting stalk with bright orange-red berries. These berries are very poisonous to people and can result in death if eaten." A sobering thought indeed!

January 6th 2016

Now we're formally in the depths of winter (and what a mild, wild and wet one this year is turning out to be), it may seem that fresh flowers would be hard to find. However a turn around the garden shows lots of things flower at this time of year; rosemary, dwarf comfrey, daphne, bergenia, vincas, hellebores, quince, candy tuft, primulas, lungwort, viburnum tinus, winter honeysuckle, wintersweet, grape hyacinths, crocuses, mahonia, to name but a few. Many of these are good for our bees, which with the mild weather are flying out of season and need all the help they can get to return to their hives. The first of the snowdrops are out and daffodils are budding up ready to flower in the next couple of weeks too.

Vases still need to be filled; often winter flower arranging is easier than summer; there really should never be a need to spend money on shop bought flowers. Rather than pick precious pollen providing flowers from the garden, there are some fabulous greenery shrubs that will last for ages in water; rosemary, myrtle, euonymous, lonicera nitida. Add a few sprays of viburnum tinus and the room will smell beautiful. The flower arrangement shown here has lasted nearly a fortnight and still looks good. Red spears of phormium or strands of variegated pampas grass leaf finish the vases with style.

December 8th 2015
’Tis the season to be jolly...but also to make leaf mould if you haven’t already done so. Leaf mould is brilliant stuff for feeding the soil, mulching, or adding to compost. It is particularly good for ericaceous plants and each year I feed our camellias with a good thick wadge.

We make our own leaf mould stores; it is very easy - all you need is a bit of chicken wire or similar. Form this into a bin shape, fill it with leaves, leave it for a year and allow the worms and rain to do their thing and hey presto you’ll have some lovely rich food. It is a good idea to have two bins; one for this year and one for last. If you don’t have the space, just fill a black bin bag with leaves, punch in a few holes and leave it in a shady corner where you can forget about it. I have not used this method, but the experts at Gardener’s World say it works equally well.

November 12th 2015
Today’s blog is a continuation of Septembers...I have been busy making bug houses, and I think you will agree that my bug people make the perfect presents. So with the rapid marching of December, here is a visual demonstation. 1. Cut out some rings of wood. I use sweet chestnut, because it lasts forever. 2. Draw on your face. 3. Drill out the facial features with different sized drill bits, from 2-10mm. 4. Add a way of fastening to a surface - I made the eyes wider, then drilled smaller holes through the wood so I could screw it in place. 5. Add hair. 6. Enjoy!

October 23rd 2015
Here is our video made for the Cornwall Sustainability Awards showing our carriages and gardens. We are rather pleased with it - being quite a novice with video editing. It was filmed on an ipad mini using a camera tripod Dave has adapted.

September 9th 2015
With autumn rapidly approaching, now is the time to become busy and prepare shelters and logpiles for hedgehogs and other hibernating mammals. It’ also a good time too to make a bug houses to help bees and other flying insects and invertibrates get through the winter. Here is some advice on how to go about it all. I shall certainly be putting in some new houses this autumn; they are great fun to make.

The great thing about bug hotels is that they can be as simple or complex as you wish; it is very easy to use a favourite theme as a subject (eg train...) as the basic components are pretty simple.

What you need is a series of tubes, or holes drilled in wood. The optimum size is between 2mm and 10mm; any larger and these aren’t any good for bees. They ideally need to be as smooth as possible. You can have a mixture of tubes and wood with holes, this would work well. You can buy bee sized cardboard tubes online; try Wildlife World or Bird Food - replacement mason bee tubes

Clay bricks with holes drilled in provides another habitat, as does cardboard and straw, which can be stuffed into terracotta plant pots. Bee ready clay bricks are available from Waitrose online, or at Green and Blue

Another option is wall mounted hotels. What we have done works well, simply pieces of chestnut with holes drilled in them; you can make faces, trains, or whatever you like. When we do more we’ll make the holes much smaller; in our current hotels, the smallest holes have been used but the bigger ones have not.

I love this video from Organik Mechanic for instruction on how to make simple small wall mounted hotels; DIY Insect Hotels - 4 different designs for hanging in trees and on walls

Ideally you should try to plant near a bed with bee friendly plants; for a year round display I’d recommend rosemary, crocus, dwarf comfrey, sedum, lavender, Michaelmas daisies, cosmos, phlox, mint and marjoram.

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September 8th 2015
It's been a shockingly long time since I wrote anything in this blog, but it is not because we have been idle; we have been to and fro excitedly watching the pond in Hayle taking shape (and learning as we have gone along). The wood has had new signs and I’ve made a treasure hunt for the children, which we had a go at last week, which was great fun. I have also made a page all about our wildlife gardens, which you can read here.

June 12th 2015
Hurrah! We are now officially business supporters of the Cornwall Wildlife Trust. Here’s our speech!

We are proud to be Business Members of Cornwall Wildlife Trust. As Cornwall’s leading local wildlife charity, the Trust carries out vitally important conservation and educational work throughout the county. Our support helps the Trust manage 57 nature reserves, providing refuge for nationally rare and endangered species. Cornwall Wildlife Trust runs a number of conservation projects across the county, on land and in our seas. We are very happy to help raise much needed funds for the Trust, so it can continue to protect Cornwall’s wildlife and wild places, now and for the future.

June 1st 2015
The elder flowers are out. The elder has a long history of medicinal purpose. This woody shrub with its scented lacy flowers and edible berries is a must for any wildlife garden. And even better, at this time of year you can make Elderflower Fizz, the taste of my childhood summers. This recipe is one I’d like to say was handed down in a passage of ritual by my mother, but actually I smuggled it from her kitchen bookshelf a few years ago and luckily she knows it so well she’s not yet asked for it back. This is from a copy of Farmers Weekly, July the 11th 1975.

Take four heads of elderflowers, 1lb 8ozs sugar (675g), 2 tablespoons white wine vinegar, 1 gallon cold water, 2 lemons. Put everything in a bowl; squeeze the juice from the lemons then quarter them. Leave to stand for 24 hours. Strain (through a sieve is fine) and bottle. We use plastic bottles, as the tops can then be loosened from time to time when the pressure rises. It is best to leave them for two weeks, but the fizz can be drunk after a few days.

May 25th 2015
Our pond at Harvey has begun. We’ve cleared part of the drainage ditch to make a really good sized pond. The balance is always between safety and aesthetics; we wanted to have a completely natural look without the interruption of a grid over the top, so have decided to place a safety grill a few inches below the surface of the water, and put up a small fence with a padlocked gate to toddler and baby proof the area. This inevitably has added quite a lot of extra work, so summer Saturdays are going to be busier than ever this year!

May 16th 2015
Cycling through the countryside at this time of year is a complete assault on the senses. It has been the best of years for violets and primroses, which have now bowed to the bright pinks of campions, blue bells, and the airy white of cow parsley. I've even seen lesser spotted orchids in the hedges by Bake and Ince castle. These pretty but fairly rare plants dislike being moved.

One of the joys of stopping beside a Cornish hedge is waiting for the rustle of movement. Many birds nest in hedges. The following comes from the RSPB Hedgerow Management Advice Page.

"In areas with few woods, many species of birds depend on hedgerows for their survival. At least 30 species nest in hedgerows. Many of these, such as bullfinches and turtle doves, prefer hedgerows over 4 m tall, with lots of trees, whereas whitethroats, linnets and yellowhammers favour shorter hedgerows (2-3 m) with fewer trees. Dunnocks, lesser whitethroats and willow warblers prefer medium or tall hedgerows with few trees. In winter, hedgerows can be feeding and roosting sites for birds.

Wrens, robins, dunnocks and whitethroats usually nest low down, but song thrushes, blackbirds, chaffinches and greenfinches nest well above the ground level. Grey partridges use grass cover at the hedge bottom to nest. It is therefore very important to manage for a range of hedge heights and tree densities and to maintain a grassy verge at the base of the hedge.

Grassy hedge bottoms and field margins provide nesting material and insect larvae for chicks to feed on. Wild flowers and grasses growing up into a hedge also help to conceal nests from predators. In winter, hedgerows can be feeding and roosting sites for resident birds and winter visitors such as fieldfares and redwings."

Do you know your finches? While I was routing around to check the difference between a chaffinch and a bullfinch I came across this Finch Quiz site, which was fun. I have to admit my score could have been improved!

May 6th 2015
On the 28th March I had the pleasure of attending a soil day at Little White Alice organised by the amazingly energetic Manda Brookman as part of the Coast Project’s ReBoot scheme. It was fascinating day; I never knew there were 27 different types of earthworm, or that they passed their burrows from one generation to the next and that it can take up to 20 years to create a burrow (and just a few minutes of spade work to destroy one). Did you know there are many ways we can keep nutrients in the soil? Not digging, adding a mulch of cardboard and woodchip, or garden compost, letting our grass grow slightly longer before cutting it; all these things help. You can read more on Coast’s Soil Page

April 10th 2015
Browsing the Coast Reboot’s site I found the following link to a webpage, Bumblebee Conservation Plant Finder, where you can test the effectiveness of your pollinator planting. I was pleased that in St Germans our garden scored 6594 and 4577 in Hayle, both of which count as excellent scores for the size of the plots and well above the regional average of 2161. However with a top score in the South West of 8624, there is still room for improvement... I've got a list of plant suggestions to work on, so watch this space!

March 24th 2015
Now that the spring is coming, it is a good time to divide and share plants. Here at Railholiday we are celebrating the success of our first plant share day, that I hope will become an annual event.

Inspired by the Coast Environmental Growth Reboot scheme, the aim was to get as many pollinator friendly plants into other people’s gardens as we could. In this I was assisted by the generosity of our good friends Rob and Fiona Sneyd, who have the most beautiful estate garden and who kindly allowed Lil and I to dig bucketfuls of snowdrops, vincas, geraniums, shasta daisies and forgetmenots. Added to our collection of dwarf comfrey, primroses, ajuga and herbs and all that our guests bought along, we had a fine selection of plants to share.

Our wonderful neighbourly chef Andy Keatings of Andy’s Travelling Diner donated burritos and goat cheese tarts, lots of cakes were bought along and we even raised a total of £96 for the Cornwall Wildlife Trust. Fiona and Rob’s garden at Coldrenick, near Menheniot, is open in aid of the Cornwall Wildlife Trust on Sunday the 12th July from 1‐5pm.

March 2nd 2015
Once again it’s time to give some thought to what to plant for our tree champions, who have all paid a £25 to plant a tree or hedge to offset their holiday carbon footprint. I felt that more hedges would be appropriate, so have planted another 200 odd whips, this time around the woods, of hazel, hawthorn, blackthorn, crab apple, bird cherry and dog rose. Digging was considerably easier this time; no decades of stone and rubble to contend with as there is in the new site and at Hayle, just beautifully soft leaf mould.

February 22nd 2015

It’s galanthophile season, and Railholiday are finally biting the bullet and getting into the spirit of snowdrop accumulation. To quote from Wikipedia; "The term galanthophile was probably invented by the noted British plantsman and garden writer E. A. Bowles (1865 to 1954) in a letter to his friend Oliver Wyatt, another keen collector of bulbs, whom he addressed as "Dear Galanthophil".

Wyatt may have been the first person to whom the term was applied but he was by no means the first galanthophile; as well as Bowles himself there had been keen collectors of snowdrops since at least the mid 19th century. Many galanthophiles are commemorated in the names of snowdrop species or cultivars. Nurseryman James Atkins (1804 to 1884) of Northampton was one of the earliest, and the tall, early-flowering, robust Galanthus 'Atkinsii' is still widely grown: Canon Ellacombe of Bitton distributed 'Atkinsii' widely."

We’ve had several small patches for many years; a few naturalised in the woods and some in our garden planted in the millennium. However after reading there are over 1700 varieties, this year I've been begging bulbs from friends, with the hope they may be just subtly different. Hence a trip to Coldrenick woodland for some exquisite, tiny double snow drops, and then on to more friends’ gardens in Trerulefoot, St Germans, Saltash, Downderry, Tideford Cross with trowel in hand. The plan for next year is to have a snowdrop walk in Colgear plantation, with clear clumps of different strains along the way. However, I suspect many of them may prove to be the same type! Still they do look rather lovely in vases...

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December 2nd 2014
Can’t quite believe it has been so long since I last updated this blog! The fabulous autumn Michaelmas Daisies and Rudbekia have now gone over and we are into the season of periwinkles, Mahonia and Viburnum Tinus.

We have tried very hard over the last few years to improve the lot of our wildlife. This means more berried shrubs, more fruit and nut trees and of course flowers at all times of the year. By having flowering plants our pollinators will always have nourishment to keep them active, and given that we rely on them for our food, this is extremely important.

Today I went to a fabulous workshop arranged by the eco guru Manda Brookman of Coast, which really got me thinking about what we can all do to play our part in helping our pollinators. Cheryl from Cornwall Wildlife Trust suggested five things which I thought I’d share; log piles; ponds (even the size of a dustbin lid is enough if you only have a small garden); planting mixed sizes of plants from perennials and shrubs to trees; providing simple wildlife habitat - eg. pieces of wood with holes drilled in for insects, bird boxes; finally keep a little patch (or bigger if you can spare it) of longer grass for shelter for small mammals and hibernating insects. It was fascinating to hear from Cheryl about the positive benefit of wildlife gardening in the city as well as the countryside - we can all make a difference.

Some bumble bees need larger scale help, and this is where natural wildlife paths play their part. If we all join up our little bit of wildlife planting with our neighbours, then everyone can be happy. And what is more it can look completely stunning. We were delighted to win a prize from Caradon in Bloom for the Best Wildlife Garden last month.

September 29th 2014
It's been a few months since I last blogged, and there’s been plenty happening with the wildlife here in St Germans and Hayle. One of the most exciting events was the use of the nest box outside Harvey's kitchen window by a family of blue tits. Much time was wasted in late May watching the tiny birds practicing their flight that should have been spent painting the carriage.

This has led me to the thought of how do we feed these birds now that winter approaches? We put out fat balls, but that is only effective whilst someone is there to fill the feeders. Over the last few years I've given this an increasing amount of thought and concluded the soundest method is to let nature provide food. I've planted more hawthorn, crab apple, guelder rose, elder, dog roses and hazel, which should all help.

In St Germans the wildlife hedge is shortly to be complimented by the addition of a pond, which will attract small insects to stand on the bottom rung of the food chain. Piles of cuttings and wood trimmings have been placed around each site so there should be a plentiful supply of woodlice and spiders, as well as winter shelter for small animals. The ivy is just about to flower and I look forward to the bees and other flying insects gorging on the late summer nectar; as the berries mature so they provide further feed for the birds. Then the time spent filling feeders can instead be frittered away on a sunny bench watching the wildlife...

May 7th 2014
The hedgerows at the moment really do excel themselves; bluebells, stitchwort, campion, cow parsley, violets, alexanders and vetch putting on a superb show. Cycling in the lanes has been a real treat.

Summer is well and truly on its way - the swallows arrived a few weeks ago (pretty early this year) and the oak is out before the ash, always a good sign for a hot summer! We’ve been busy in the woods with the big fell of Japanese larch well underway, allowing the young native saplings to sprout from the undergrowth with enthusiasm. The remainder of the larch will have to wait until the winter; we’re glad to see no signs of the Sudden Oak Death that is killing so many of our conifers in Cornwall.

We had a lovely walk on Bodmin moor on the 27th April. Although it can sometimes seem like an inhospitable place, it is sometimes surprising to discover the range of wildlife on the moors. The children were delighted to discover tadpoles in the old mine tracks (oddly enough there didn't seem to be any in the larger pools) and while we were admiring them, we spotted a sheep giving birth on a high quarry ledge. We could see how she got there, but did question the logistics of how she might move her lamb to safety. On the way back it was lovely to buy free range eggs from a cottage on the edge of Minions and smell the honey of gorse in full blossom.

March 4th 2014

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The rain and winds have continued, but the weather has been mild, so spring is now well and truly underway. Port Eliot House and gardens are open to the public, The Long Gallery Tea Rooms is serving afternoon tea and cakes and our gardens in St Germans and Hayle are positively flourishing.

I love the way at this time of year the daffodil buds take such a wide variety of shapes, our pale narcissi emerging from a nobbly extraterrestrial skin. 2014 is going to be the year our hellebore collection really comes into its own. Hellebores are a fascinating genus; there are so many of them and they hybridise freely. Last year I invested in a number of plants and we have a wonderful array of deep purple, yellow, mottled white and baby pink plants, all producing delicate flowers that will stay on the stem well into the summer.

The mild and windy weather has meant a noticeable decline in the number of birds needing our feeders. However the owl population has been as active as ever. It's never the trains that keep us awake at night (there aren't usually any), but the owls do a pretty good job! Nothing beats standing out in the evening and listening to the conversations between the trees and a few days ago I was rewarded by a beautiful barn owl flying directly above. A magnificent sight!

February 2nd 2014
What a wet time we’ve been having! However because it has been so mild, the daffodils are very nearly in flower, the snowdrops and hellebores are in full bloom and our bird feeders have been quieter because there is still plenty of food in the fields.

The fungi in our woodland continues to be interesting - the images above show a bright red Elf Ear fungus, and beside it a jelly fungus, Auricularia auricula-judae, traditionally used in medicine for complaints including sore throats, sore eyes and jaundice, and as an astringent. This fungus is a popular food in China, but here it is making the most of an elm tree that has succumbed to disease. We’re also still seeing plenty of moths - December and winter moths, and above left a rather interesting mottled umber that stayed for several days.

Work has started in earnest in our woods as we begin the mighty larch felling session. This we hope will reduce the chances of getting Phytophthora ramorum or, for ease of conversation, Sudden Oak Death. Misleadingly it is far more of a problem to larch than oak; English oak seems to have good resistance. The plan is to re-plant with mixed native broadleaf species; lime, rowan, oak, beech, ash, sycamore and cherry among others. A lot of regeneration is already in place: an open canopy will allow our few stunted oaks to survive, so while our woodland is starting to look rather scruffy in a few years the work should pay dividends.

December 17th 2013
As we head towards the shortest day it is so mild it still feels like the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness. There are roses in bloom and even the holly is holding on to a few berries - the birds have usually stripped them by late November. We had one night that was a little frosty towards the end of November that persuaded the walnut to shower its leaves, but there are still a number of trees holding on to their autumn coat and giving a glorious show of colour. From the woods the village elms are a distinctive luminescent yellow.

John the moth man is visiting less frequently now. We've had a spattering of November and December moths. It's been a very good year for moth spotting - John was excited earlier in the season to see a vestal moth and there's been a number of uncommon species, although this year the tiger moth has been sparse.

I'm always glad of greenery this time of year as the flowers become harder to find. We made our wreath from rosemary, bay, ivy, holly, verigated viburnum, lonicera nitida 'Baggesen's Gold' (evergreen shrub of the honeysuckle family, sometimes called boxleaf honeysuckle) and two different varieties of euonymous, which come into their own at this time of year. I constructed the hoop from willow from the garden and tied it all together with a skein of jetsam wool I'd found on Portwrinkle beach, which reminds me that now is the season for beachcombing - wild seas, empty coves ... what better way to spend a winter's day.

November 29th 2013
It's been quite an extraordinary season for fungi. A few of them are illustrated above, including quite the most startling coral fungi I've seen. This bright orange yellow antler fungus was photographed during a cycle ride on the Tamar mining trails, which was a great place to go for unusual flora. The other fungi is just a small selection of the species we have had in our garden this year in St Germans. The dog phallus (or dog stinkhorn) toadstools are uncommon, but certainly distinctive. They are enjoyed by insects, which they depend upon for reproduction. The large mushrooms that seem like field mushrooms came with a bit of a warning - when the stem was split the flesh was very yellow, giving away its true identity - the toxic yellow stainer.

October 16th 2013
What a glorious summer - and this year we've been rewarded by a glut of apples and blackberries. However now it's time to start making preparations for hibernating small animals. I always find Gardeners' World a great source of inspiration for wildlife projects and so really enjoyed making the hedgehog house above out of scrap material from Mevy. Our gardener Dave, who installed the toad shelter, made the observation that a hedgehog might well be more tempted by the large woodpile clad in wild clematis, but it was fun to do.

I also really enjoyed making the bug hotel - a great way of using old Alexander stems, wood trimmings and hydrangea heads. As I pulled the Alexanders from the ditch they were writhing with woodlice and small spiders. It was a comfort to think they were being relocated from a home that would soon be underwater. There are lots of sites offering guidance on insect hotels - here's one I found earlier; Building an Insect Hotel.

August 24th 2013
After all the rain and a slow start to the season, this year’s wildlife spotting looked like it would be disappointing. However the sun came out in June and July and we've had a bumper year for interesting moths and lots of butterflies. We’ve had lobster moths, buff tips, dingy and four spotted footmen, tiger moths, black arches, white ermines and many more. I've put up the occasional posting on the Facebook Page Butterflies and Moths Uk, which I would recommend for anyone with an interest in wildlife.

One of the reasons this blog has been so quiet over the last few months is that we've been extremely busy with several projects to improve our wildlife habitat, and I'm really pleased to report they’ve been successful. There’s now a lovely lavender bed in front of Mevy, which is swarming with bees and the butterflies have loved the buddleias and sedum, which were divided and re-distributed in the spring. I've planted a herb and butterfly bed in Hayle and although it struggled in the very dry weather, it is now looking great - the garden there is a sun trap and our signal box playhouse/bird house has a balcony for butterfly viewing. I have to say it was bliss sitting in the signal box eating lunch and watching the un-suspecting blackbirds in the hedge.

March 5th 2013
Has February really been and gone already? It was a great month for bird watching, both at Hayle and St Germans. We've had a pair of nut hatches, lots of different tits, blackbirds, robins and even a chiff chaff. Work has been going on at Hayle in the newly renamed Harvey's garden. We've fenced off an area for a herb and butterfly garden and spotted a brown mouse while we were doing so. We've also put up a number of bird boxes - my very knowlegable brother Richard used off cuts from the fence and has designed different styles for the different birds. These can be watched from the comfort of a carriage compartment - lets hope they see some action this year!

In early February the first of the snowdrops, daffodils and crocuses came up and now the gardens are flushed with colour; anemones, hellebores, haiacynths, winter jasmine, heather, mahonias and camellias have all joined the show. The almond blossom is also out - so we're keeping our fingers crossed there won't be any late frosts.

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January 7th 2013
It would be difficult to pretend that at this time of year the garden is as blooming as it is in June. However among the winter hibernation there are a number of flowers quietly opening to brighten the landscape and make my job of flower arranger a little easier. Here is a list of those that I spotted today; Winter Jasmine, Greater Perriwinkle, Camillia Sasanqua (Rainbow), Quince - Crimson and Gold, trailing Rosemary, Crocus (just one at the moment but lots to follow), Dog Daisy, Heuchera, Heather, Mahonia, Japanese Anenome, Primula, Roses, Viburnum Tinus, Hebe, Wintersweet, Wild Strawberry, Wall Flower and Campanella. Of all of these the Jasmine and Mahonia have the most impact, with great sprays of yellow flowers. The snowdrops are not yet out, but are showing signs of life, as are the hellebores and daffodils, which should put on a lovely show this year - fingers crossed for no frosts!

January 2nd 2013
Whilst I've been busy catching up on office work, the outside world has been active. Our feeders continue to attract a lovely selection of birds and the ones under the Macrocarpa tree in the Old Luggage Van are especially popular - in constant need of more nuts and seeds. I thought today would be a good time to do a top ten for plants of 2012, but have found it harder than I thought - not enough numbers! Where do I put the asters, sweet william, wallflowers, fennel, crocus, roses, teasel ...? Perhaps another list beckons!

10. Sage - In the spring it was lovely to see our bushes covered in mating ladybirds. The plants we put in five years ago have suffered from an ants nest at their root and have become somewhat woody, so this sping will be due for renewal. 9. Viburnum Tinus - providing lovely scented flowers throughout the winter, from November to May. 8. Apples - Cornish Aromatic, Cornish Gillyflower - normally these would come fairly close to the top, with their lovely spring blossom and delicious fruit. 2012 hasn't been a good year for fruit but the birds have enjoyed a few spoils and the blossom looked lovely in spring 7. Escallonia - this has provided a dense hedge for the birds in the site at Hayle, and is never quiet - there's always a shuffling of wings going on.
6. Hawthorn - this has kept the birds fed in Hayle where we aren't able to keep a regular food table supplied.
5. Victoria plum - one of our trees did really well this year and what we couldn't eat ourselves was much enjoyed by wasps and mice.
4. Mint - not only does it reproduce prolifically and is useful in the pot, but was much appreciated by both bees and butterflies.
3. Lavender - this was covered in bees in the late summer when the sun finally came out, and I was still able to pick the odd head in December.
2. Japanese Quince - this was nearly the number one as it's been such a star performer, covered with flowers, and laterly fruit, since the first of January. This year there hasn't been a day without the cheerful red flowers adorning the fence and the buds covering the limbs indicate the season is just about to go into overdrive again.
1. Oak - the birds have loved perching here for shelter and pecking at the lichen, and the leaves have been a valuable source of food for moths, which shelter on the building wall. The acorns have all disappeared, so I imagine they've provided food for the smaller creatures. I've chosen this to top the charts as it is host to many things we can't see or don't notice much - tiny invertibrates and all sorts of lichen.

October 12th 2012
The birds are very much enjoying the feeders now. We've had stone chats, blue tits, sparrows, robins, great tits and several other small birds. Among the moths spotted recently we've had Angle shades, 2 common carpets and a green carpet today. Our lovely friend John who comes and identifies moths at our house recommended an excellent site for moth identification Uk Moths. Over the last month we've watched a Tiger Moth feasting on our mint, the lavender swarming with bees and many different butterflies enjoying the September sunshine - Speckled Wood, Red Admiral and Peacock to name a few. The lovely Brimstone moth came and stayed for a few days too, keeping company with a Black Arches.

August 23rd 2012
The weather has set fair and at last we've been able to enjoy butterflies, moths, bees and other flying insects enjoying our garden. Early in August we spent a few days with friends in Brittany and I was amazed at the wealth of butterflies there. We were staying in rural farm land, with few cultivated gardens but a wealth of wildflowers; hemp agrimony, birds foot trefoil, knapweed, ragwort, willowherb, bramble, poor man's weather vane, broom and vetch. This has led to a spot of research on the best garden plants to attract flying insects, in particular moths, as we have noticed a big decrease this year in the numbers we've seen. A posting on the wonderful environment advice site Coast - One Planet Tourism came up with the following advice;

From Charlotte Dancer of the Tamar Valley AONB;
"I've been chatting with our bat & moth expert, Martin Summers, and he recommends that you plant anything nectar-bearing, such as early flowering honesty, ice plants (sedum), Michaelmas daisies, centaurea (knapweed), teasels or honeysuckle."

From Steve of Explore In Cornwall
"Quite a few moths love Tobacco plants and night-scented flowers like Evening Primrose, Night-Scented Stock, Jasmine and Honeysuckle, a Cornish favourite is the six spot burnet which likes bird's foot trefoil, the less common 5 spot burnet likes Greater bird's foot trefoil - both native plants."
Elephant hawk moths go for Rosebay willow herb and Puss moths like willow. Humming bird hawk moths are migrants but lay their eggs here on lady's bedstraw which is easy to grow as it is so abundant naturally here.

A quick search for Lady's Bedstraw images found me on a site specialising in Moth and Butterfly breeding. The Lepidoptera Breeders Association where they sell a variety of butterfly and moth friendly plants, including dock and dandelion!

My brother Richard also sent a posting on Facebook, which was useful. He writes;
"Willowherb, Ragwort!! (Maybe not), Mulberry, Oak all good for moths...I don't think Willowherb is too invasive, but it will colonise open ground (during WW2 it grew well on the sites of bombed buildings) Elephant Hawkmoths love it. Good idea to leave Ragwort out of garden, as is quite toxic. Honeysuckle is good for Hummingbird hawk moths, as well as other insects and birds, but I think you have plenty of that. Ivy also seems to provide food and shelter for lots of creatures, but spreads rapidly. Good for covering a shady wall perhaps.(The ivy covering the wall in our garden grew from seed). Heather attracts Emperor moths, but may be hard to grow enough in your garden, and these moths are mainly found on moorland. Hawthorn in hedges also supports several species, including Magpie moths. Most tree species seem to have their own specific species of moth, as well as others which feed on several. Enjoy the planting and see what comes along!!"

Of the moths spotted this month we've had Yellow Brimstone, Black Arches, Jersey Tiger, Double stiped pug and several other small unidentified moths. We also have seen a rather magnificent Southern Hawker dragonfly.

August 1st 2012

There's been lots to watch these last few weeks as wildlife activity hits its peak. At Hayle I was delighted to see a frog who surprised me with his rustling through the undergrowth and today saw a tiny frog in our garden in St Germans. We took a trip to Cuttivett to pick up an old mower blade and were amazed at the invertibrate town beneath it - an extraordinary ants nest, with two slow worms and a mouse as company. In the woods we were delighted when a buzzard landed on the table outside our work retreat. There's also been plenty of activity in the way of butterflies - this lovely small white was hovering around the cabbage that we grow for butterlies.

On interesting wildlife plants we've had wild carrott and hemp agrimony and the pear tree I've been waiting for eight years to fruit has finally produced an apple! (I have a feeling it may have come from the lucky dip stand at Trago...) We had a visit from the Forestry Commission to check the health of our woodland, which was thankfully given a thumbs up, but we will need to consider a management plan for thining our larch as sudden oak death is rapidly encroaching the area and we want to do all we can to save our sweet chestnuts, which are also affected by the plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum.

July 13th 2012
It's certainly been a wet few weeks - great for my hedge, but not so good for everything else. I was heartened to see bees on our catmint today during a brief interlude of sunshine. Poppy and I spotted three bullfinches from the station footbridge and tonight there are a number of moths beneath the canopy, where they are always glad of shelter. I've not seen our moth man John much over the last few weeks as it has just been too wet and windy, but if the weather settles he'll come and name them for us.

Woodlice seem to be doing very well in our garden - it's a race for the ripe strawberries! We've noticed an increase in mice activity - the small herbs I've been planting; parsley, thyme and sage; have disappeared overnight. I noticed a bird's nest in the Millpool coach the other day although I've not yet noticed a lot of action there.

The Sweet William are now in full flower and the roses have been bedragled but magnificent. I was delighted to see a number of my semi ripe cuttings taken last autumn are showing good signs of growing into strong plants. I've just put in 36 plug plants of lavender (thank you Gardener's World!) which will be perfect in two years for our sensory butterfly garden that is in the planning. The quince has set a number of fruits, although the other fruit trees aren't so good - barely any apples or pears. There wasn't a late frost, but I do wonder whether the gale force winds and rain earlier in the season may have played their part - still it's a rest year, so hopefully next autumn will yield a bumper crop, and we do have quite a few plums on the newest of our trees to look forward to. It's also been the best year for raspberries - and without having to do any watering at all - what a change from last year!

May 29th 2012
The first cuckoo was heard on April the 26th and a week later on a walk on Bodmin Moor we heard another calling away. Now that we're approaching June the garden is truly blooming - the first roses opened on Thursday 24th May. The garlic in the woods is going over, but the bluebells are still fabulous and the show this year is the best ever. We've seen a number of orange tipped butterflies, cabbage whites and peacocks. A huge number of ladybirds congregated on our sage bush earlier this year and as always we are inundated with friendly blackbirds among the rose beds. Amazingly the quince that first came to flower in January is still looking stunning now. The wallflowers have performed sterlingly, the hedge is becoming well established and the camellias are full of new growth. Now just to keep on top of the weeds!

April 23rd 2012
The first swallows were spotted on the 14th April. We've seen evidence of deer in the local woodland and are waiting for glimses of baby badgers in our woods, who are often less shy than their parents.
Everything is bursting into life - there's now too much to name that is in bloom - exchordia, camellias, primroses, viburnum burkwoodii, spirea, hellebores, wallflowers and much more. The daffodils splendid show is coming to an end, but many of the late narcissi are holding their own. Buds are forming on the roses already, so we may have some early flowers. The treat at this time of the year is the fabulous show of wild garlic in our woods, which will soon be followed by the bluebells, always a little later. Mulching has kept me busy, but I'm now reaching the bottom of our woodpile. We've had plenty of rain, which has been great for the hedge, but not so good for our guests!

March 1st 2012
Our wildlife hedge is now almost complete. We have planted a mixture of hawthorn, blackthorn, crab apple, hazel, field maple, guelder rose, bird cherry, spindle, beech, dog rose and an occassional rugosa rose. Now it's just a case of keeping it well mulched, weeded and watered and having patience.

The garlic is coming up in force in our woods, and at the end bluebell leaves are taking the fore. Today as I refill the peanuts it gives great pleasure to take stock of the wide variety of birds we've had visiting; blue tits, robins, blackbirds, bullfinches, sparrows, goldcrests and many more. The woodpigeons nest in the trees and enjoy the ivy, of which there is plenty.

Yesterday John, our moth spotter, visited. It's a little early yet for anything of any significance, but his visit did inspire us to think that spring will soon be here.

Flowering today; Many different varieties of camellia, Viburnum tinus, daffodils and Narcissus, including the pretty tete a tete, hayacinth, osmanthus, hellebores, wallflowers, crocuses of many species, which are brightening up the Luggage Van garden, wood anemone, winter jasmine, and a Burgundy Ice rose that has been completely fooled by the mild winter.

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